- The Election of the UNESCO Director General
- Criteria for Evaluation of Candidates for the Post of Director General of UNESCO
- An assessment of the race for the position of Director General
Biographical Information on the Candidates
- Ivonne Baki
- Irina Gueorguieva Bokova
- Benita Ferrero-Waldner
- Farouk Hosny
- Ina Marčiulionytė
- Sospeter Muhongo
- Nouréini Tidjani-Serpos
- Alexander Vladimirovich Yakovenko
Coverage of the Campaign (prior to the first vote of the Executive Board)
Coverage During the Voting by the Executive Board
- The First Round of Voting
- More coverage of the election and the candidates
- Results of the Second Round of Voting
- Results of the Third Round of Voting
- Reports that EU Commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner Withdraws from UNESCO Run
- 4th Round a Tie, Ferrero-Waldner and Baki Withdrew
- The Fifth and "Final" Round of Voting
- Charge: Farouk Hosny Helped Hijackers of Achille Lauro Escape
- Bokova Elected
The Election in the UNESCO General Conference
- "Play politics with Unesco and you defeat its mission"
- Irina Bokova Elected Director-General of UNESCO
- Dream for the Future
- Egypt's Post Election Action in Berlin
- UNESCO General Conference: Irina Bokova sworn in as Director-General
Post Election Materials
- "Media flurry demonizes Egyptian culture minister"
- "Yo ya me he convertido en un símbolo"
- Normalization Politics on the Nile
The voting in the Executive Board was, as expected, the defining element of the election. Prior to that voting most of the press coverage was framed around the candidacy of Farouk Hosny -- his leadership position in the race and the likely challengers. Perhaps as a result of that framing, several key forces aligned against his candidacy. Arrayed against Hosny were several candidates, the strongest of whom appeared to be two Permanent Delegates to UNESCO (Bokova and Marciulionyte) and an European Union Commissioner (Ferrero-Waldner). The only candidate from the Americas (Baki) appeared as a dark horse who was rumored to have the support of the United States delegation. Candidates tended all to have visible presence on the Internet, campaign brochures, and hospitality suites at key events. Several of the candidates spent time traveling to UNESCO member nation capitols to promote their candidacies, most importantly the eventual winner, Irina Bokova. The strong support of top officials from their home governments was important for several candidates, suggesting that there was some important behind the scenes electioneering going on.
Ultimately, it appears that the negative campaign opposing Hosny was effective. There was little public discussion of the negative aspects of other candidacies until they became serious challengers to Hosny. Ultimately, it appears that Hosny could not expand his lead to a majority of the delegates to the Executive Board and a majority finally coalesced around his principal opponent, Bokova.
The General Conference did not unanimously support the recommendation of the Executive Board, but did so by a large majority.
Ultimately, the Organization selected its first woman Director General and the first from Group 2 -- the former Communist nations. In doing so, it rejected the bid of the candidate of the Arab nations who would have been the second Muslim and the second person from Group 5 and the African nations.
Of course, it is important that all the leading candidates were multilingual, with experience in high level government posts, and counted significant diplomatic experience in their backgrounds. None was a globally recognized leader in education, science nor communications. Indeed, the only scientist in the field got few votes and dropped out early. Hosny, as long term Minister of Culture of Egypt, was the only candidate with major credentials in management of one of UNESCO's key sectors.